The inability of SEATO to respond effectively to the challenges in Laos and South Vietnam weakened the organization and allowed friction among its membership. Relations reached their nadir in December Elsewhere in the area, the Kennedy administration was attempting to win over Sukarno's Indonesia by facilitating its claim to West Irian, then the Netherlands colony of West New Guinea. They shifted U. The Netherlands had initially insisted on a long-term UN trusteeship and UN-supervised self-determination for the inhabitants. The final agreed plan included only a minimal UN role in the transfer procedures; it was a virtual handover from Netherlands to Indonesian control.
President Kennedy and his brother, Attorney General Robert Kennedy, played a major role in this process. During the final stages, the President intervened to insist that Indonesia accept the Netherlands' last best offer and not escalate its guerrilla war against Netherlands forces in West New Guinea. Opposition by both the Philippines and Indonesia to the creation of the Federation of Malaysia complicated the furtherance of U. The Philippines' opposition took the form of a diplomatic campaign based on a prior claim to part of Malaysia.
Sukarno opposed the federation with the policy of confrontation which it had initially used in West Irian. The Australians opposed transfer of West New Guinea to Indonesia because Australia held the other half of the island in trust. The Australians were equally concerned about the Indonesian threat to the Federation of Malaysia since they had troops stationed there. Australia sought a special understanding that should its troops in Malaysia be attacked overtly by Indonesian forces, the United States and Australia would consult under the terms of the ANZUS treaty.
This volume presents the official record of U. The Office of the Historian has prepared a summary of the volume. For additional information, contact Edward C. Keefer, Chief of the Asia and Americas Division, at Please use the order form below. Order from: Superintendent of Documents P.
EWC Publications Update
This is not an official statement of policy by the Department of State; it is intended only as a guide to the contents of this volume. Since , the Department of State's documentary series Foreign Relations of the United States has constituted the official record of the foreign policy and diplomacy of the United States.
Historians in the Office of the Historian collect, arrange, and annotate the principal documents comprising the record of American foreign policy. The standards for the preparation of the series and the general deadlines for its publication are established by the Foreign Relations of the United States statute of October 28, 22 USC , et seq. Kennedy are the subject of 25 print volumes and 6 microfiche supplements. Volumes in the Foreign Relations series are published when all necessary editing, declassification, and printing steps have been completed.
The documents in this volume are drawn from the centralized indexed files of the Department of State, the decentralized lot files of the Department's Executive Secretariat, and Bureau, Office, and Division lot files. In addition, the editors made extensive use of the Presidential and other papers at the John F. Kennedy Library in Boston, Massachusetts. Most of the documents were originally classified.
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The Historical Documents Review Division of the Department of State in concert with the appropriate offices in other agencies and foreign governments carried out their declassification. The coverage in the Foreign Relations series of U. This volume, which presents a selection of documents on the rest of Southeast Asia, has two principal themes: 1 the impact of pro-Communist insurgencies in South Vietnam and Laos on the rest of Southeast Asia, especially Thailand, Cambodia, and the members of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization and 2 the challenge posed by Indonesian irredentism in Southeast Asia.
The following is a summary of the important issues covered in the volume. Parenthetical citations are to numbered documents in the text. For additional copies of this summary or more information on the volume, contact Edward C.
Keefer at fax: The regional compilation emphasizes U. The composition of the organization prevented the member nations from proceeding against acts of aggression rapidly and effectively and the interests of SEATO members were often in conflict.
The United States and most of the Asian members sought an active military role in the region, while the United Kingdom was reluctant to commit troops, and France was opposed to any level of military intervention in Southeast Asia. SEATO's internal contradictions and its inability to respond to threats in Laos and Vietnam led to a reappraisal of the organization.
Thai officials tirelessly pressed to change the unanimous voting procedures which allowed a single member to veto any proposed action. The United States saw no need to change voting practices, since the SEATO treaty already enabled its members to act individually or collectively in response to events in the region. In addition, little or no support existed among the other members for the three-fourths majority vote advocated by Thailand.
As a result, the United States recommended leaving the established procedures intact, but allowing members to abstain from voting rather than casting a negative vote, thus vetoing an action. As long as a designated number of members voted affirmatively and no negative votes were cast, an action would be approved. Members choosing to abstain from voting were not required to participate in any action or operation adopted by the other members. To ensure speedy resolution of issues, votes on any action would take place within an agreed-upon period of time.
Burma was not as influenced by the insurgencies in Laos and South Vietnam as the rest of mainland Southeast Asia was. The threat of the KMT was not the only problem for Burma. There was a strong suspicion in some Burmese Army circles that the United States had and continued to support ethnic separatist movements in Burma, but the Central Intelligence Agency reported that U. The immediate future of U. It was a physical and symbolic manifestation of merger of American technology and Cambodian development hopes.
Within a few years it had unexpectedly and rapidly deteriorated to the point of disintegration and required extensive repairs, which were still not completed by the end of Soon after taking office, President Kennedy cultivated a personal relationship with Cambodia's leader, Prince Norodom Sihanouk. This personal tie was reinforced by U. Like other countries in Southeast Asia, Cambodia was intensely concerned about security.
Although fearful of the spread of Communism into Cambodia, Sihanouk believed that a Communist victory in the region was "an inevitable wave of the future. With the memory of recent plots against him hatched by Cambodian opponents in Thailand and by members of the South Vietnam Government, Sihanouk constantly suspected that his enemies in Bangkok and Saigon were planning his overthrow or his assassination.
Because both Thailand and South Vietnam were firmly allied with the United States, Sihanouk believed that those states acted with the full knowledge, support, and approval of their patron. There was little the United States could do to disabuse Sihanouk of this view. Fear of his immediate neighbors spurred Sihanouk in mid to seek an international agreement guaranteeing Cambodia's neutrality and territorial integrity.
Sihanouk threatened that Cambodia would accept Chinese and Soviet protection should his plan not be accepted.
Papuas Insecurity State Failure In The Indonesian Periphery
The question of guarantees would have been unnecessary if Cambodia and its neighbors had been able to settle their differences diplomatically. Cambodia broke relations with Thailand in and was on the verge of doing the same with South Vietnam by mid Allegations of border violations and support for opposition groups and similar issues poisoned regional relations and eventually U. In late , the blow-up occurred. Sihanouk became increasingly agitated by the presence of Cambodian dissidents in Thailand and South Vietnam.
By autumn, the issue absorbed him and he fixated on the dissident Khmer Serei, or Free Cambodians, created by his old enemy Son Ngoc Thanh. The Khmer Serei began broadcasting anti-Sihanouk messages into Cambodia from a transmitter thought to be in South Vietnam. Sihanouk publicly and vehemently condemned the group and their broadcasts.
Although the Khmer Serei was small in number about and had no appreciable support within Cambodia, Sihanouk expended an inordinate amount of energy agitating against the group and its radio broadcasts. Sihanouk also raised allegations about U. Believing that the United States and the Central Intelligence Agency were behind the coup, Sihanouk saw himself as the next target.
His agitation was compounded by the effects of a rigid dietary regimen he had recently begun. The combination made him emotionally overwrought and prone to impulsive, irrational behavior. In this state and without consulting his advisers, Sihanouk unilaterally embarked on an erratic path, issuing an ultimatum that called for an end to the Khmer Serei broadcasts by January 1, If they continued, he declared, he intended to terminate all U.
In response, the United States attempted to find the onerous Khmer Serei radio transmitter and encouraged South Vietnam to suppress further broadcasts. After ebbing somewhat after President Kennedy's assassination on November 22, the crisis intensified during the last weeks of when it seemed to the United States that there was a problem "of keeping Sihanouk from committing [political and economic] suicide. In late November and early December , Sihanouk revived his oft-repeated but unsubstantiated charge of U.
The United States asked for evidence to support the allegations, but Sihanouk produced nothing more than his conviction that the Thais and South Vietnamese could not harbor and support his opponents without U. The Cambodian people were instructed to revel in the deaths by participating in street celebrations and enjoying shortened workdays.
The United States vigorously protested the reference to President Kennedy. Sihanouk immediately recalled his Embassy personnel from Washington. The United States responded by agreeing to reduce its diplomatic personnel in Cambodia. Sihanouk's reaction effectively ended U. The Ambassador in Phnom Penh concluded that the United States could no longer work with Cambodia as long as Sihanouk remained in power. By the end of , Sihanouk was characterized as having a "pathological hatred" of the United States, expressed in a "constant campaign of abuse in public statements" intended to intensify anti-American feelings among the Cambodian population.
Responsibility for the deterioration rested in large part on Sihanouk. At times, however, U.
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The Kennedy administration took office believing that previous U. Eisenhower's secret support of the rebellion of dissident army factions in the outer islands had alienated the central government in Java. Even when the Eisenhower administration ended its covert support of the rebels and decided to look to the Indonesian Army as the best hedge against the growing influence of the Indonesian Communist Party the PKI , relations with President Sukarno remained strained.
The principal reason for this friction was the Eisenhower administration's insistence on neutrality in the dispute between Indonesia and the Netherlands over West New Guinea called West Irian by the Indonesians. Indonesia interpreted U. Ambassador to Indonesia, Howard P. Jones, waited only days after the inauguration of President Kennedy to submit a broad seven-point plan to prevent Indonesia from falling under Communist control and to win it over to the west.